The world is currently dealing with several environmental issues. These problems have reached a critical stage, from the human population explosion to climate change.
Considering the requirement for solar power in India since pollution from fossil fuels has become critically high, the world leaders met in Paris to develop Sustainable Development Goals.
These goals aim at achieving sustainable development through 17 pillars across various dimensions. One of these goals is to use renewable energy sources to reverse environmental damage done by fossil fuels.
The Current Situation Of Renewable Energy Resources in India
In India, currently, most of the energy is derived from coal. Around 80 percent of India’s energy comes from this fossil fuel, hugely polluting the environment from mining to end-use.
The recent Glasgow summit has decided to phase down the use of coal and phase out certain fossil fuels, which are neither economically viable nor environmentally safe.
In this Summit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the campaign, Panchamrit. The campaign aims to achieve carbon neutrality by 2070.
However, the most important commitment of all is that India will derive 50 percent of its energy requirements from renewable sources by 2030. With this, India aims to improve its renewable energy capacity.
India has a huge energy demand. It requires a massive quantity of energy to serve the ever-growing population. The country is gradually trying to limit the use of fossil fuels and increase the share of renewable energy.
Renewable energy includes those sources that can be used again and again without depletion. Fossil fuels like coal and petroleum are in limited quantities, and their rate is extorting.
Since fossil fuels will ultimately deplete after a specific period, the world would need solar energy to sustain itself sooner than later.
In comparison, renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, etc., will never cease to exist. Also, in contrast to fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are non-polluting.
Solar Power In India: A Brief Overview
Solar power in India is still in the nascent stage. It has been used only to a minuscule amount of its capacity.
The International Solar Alliance, founded jointly by India and France, aims to create a system known as one world, one sun, and one grid. It aims to connect all the countries in the world into a common grid.
The countries currently experiencing night can get energy from those in the daylight and vice-versa. The Government has also given various incentives to stakeholders to increase the production of solar power in India.
The KUSUM scheme, for instance, is designed to increase the use of solar power in India by creating opportunities for farmers. If farmers install solar panels in their uncultivated fields, it will act as a source of added income.
The Renewable Generation Obligation (RGO) and Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) aim to increase the use of renewable power sources such as solar power in India.
These obligations are designed for industries to encourage them to increase eco-friendliness alongside maximising profit.
Generating Solar power in India, or anywhere else for that matter, is generally more practical in places that see a higher percentage of daylight. States such as Rajasthan and Gujarat are, therefore, ideal for installing solar power plants.
Other Types Of Renewable Energy Resources In India
Renewable energy accounts for 13 percent of the country’s current electricity generation. Naturally, all of it doesn’t come solely from solar power in India.
Through suitable efforts from both governmental and non-governmental organisations, many other renewable sources – to be explained shortly – can be used to their maximum potential.
It will not only be helpful for the current generation but also the future generations.
Below are some renewable energy sources other than Solar power in India.
1. Wind Energy
Wind energy is one of the most rapidly expanding clean energy sources. It is also gaining popularity in India.
Generally, the windy shores of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are the perfect sites for the installation of large wind turbines.
The National Institute of Wind Energy aims to study India’s capacity and find new places to install wind turbines.
After a milestone record of generating 5.5GW of electricity from wind energy in FY 2016/17, development has dropped to an average rate of 1.6GW during the past five years.
Constant efforts are being made to utilize wind energy to generate electricity on a large scale.
2. Hydroelectric Energy
India also has a huge dependence on hydroelectric energy. Considering both small and large hydroelectric power plants, they jointly produce 25 percent of the total energy from renewable sources of power.
But such large-scale projects must only be done after a suitable Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Such assessments are important so that these projects don’t affect the livelihood of the people living nearby or cause destruction to the local ecology.
However, a small run of the river projects must be increasingly encouraged by authorities.
3. Tidal Energy
With a long coastline, India also has a great potential to harness the tidal energy of the ocean. Sadly, not many suitable projects have been developed to generate power from tides. Proper planning and surveys are required before venturing into its use.
4. Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Energy is another source that has become quite popular in the world. However, unlike solar power in India, geothermal energy has been harnessed in only a few places.
5. Waste To Energy
With the population explosion, there is also an explosion in the amount of waste coming from each household. This waste can be suitably converted into energy through gasification, pyrolysis, or incineration.
Many schemes by the Government of India aim to convert waste into a useful substance to create a functional circular economy.
India’s renewable energy capacity is enormous. However, it has not been used up to its potential. Out of all the other power sources, Solar power in India has the maximum growth potential. Still, it remains underutilised.
The main reasons behind the under-utilisation of solar power in India include hefty initial investment and capital-intensive technology.
Proper research must be carried out to use the various renewable energy sources to walk toward the path of sustainable development.
Q. What type of renewable energy India rely on the most?
Solar energy is the most relied upon renewable energy source in India. Its expansion potential is no less than 49.34 GW.
Q. What is the best renewable resource for India?
Solar power is now the top renewable energy resource in India, with an installed capacity of 46.8 GW.
Q. How much energy is consumed by India each day?
A. India uses an average of 816 kWh. The overall energy output is around 1386 B kWh.